Projects information of the young scientists’ public financing for 2021-2023   

АР09058350 “Development and introduction of the production technology of chrome antifriction cast iron for parts of the mining equipment” project manager Shcherbakova Yelena Petrovna


A number of parts of the mining equipment are made from chrome cast iron. In spite of significant advantages of using this cast iron, it also has its disadvantages – relatively poor casting properties (low fluidity, high shrinkage), besides, machining is complicated, when making the parts from cast products

The aim of the project

Development and introduction of the parts’ production technology of mining equipment, made from chrome cast iron with an optimal set of properties, depending on operation conditions of the parts, which will increase a life cycle by 1.5-2 times.

Expected and achieved results

Production tests of the developed technology for the production of chrome-plated antifriction cast iron for mining equipment parts were carried out and a test certificate was obtained at “Parkhomenko KMZ” LLP dated June 6, 2023.

The experimental alloy of the composition, %: C – 3.1; Si – 2.0; Cr – 0.2; Mn – 0.8; Ni – 0.35; Cu – 0.45; Ti – 0.25 was smelted in an industrial arc furnace at the production site of “Parkhomenko KMZ” LLP, casting was carried out in a sandy-clay mold. Compared with the composition of the classic cast iron ASF – 2, the titanium content in the experimental alloy was increased to 0.25%, i.e. more than 2 times. The necessary titanium content was provided by the introduction of ferrotitane grade FeT70. Samples were made from the melted alloy for testing and adjusting the manufacturing technology of replaceable parts.

Calculations of the technological process for the manufacture of the “Ground pump housing” part were carried out: analysis of the design of the part and the technological conditions for the part and casting; development and calculation of the gate-feeding system and casting modes; calculation of the duration of solidification and the duration of exposure of the casting and mold during cooling.

Pilot tests were carried out to assess the gas permeability of the mold, the influence of the casting temperature, and the evaluation of the finished casting was carried out: stress level, hardness and porosity.

Based on the results obtained, a preliminary technological map was obtained for “Parkhomenko KMZ” LLP dated May 25, 2023.

Pilot tests were carried out and the results of manufacturing replacement parts were adjusted at the production site.

Samples from the experimental alloy were examined for metallographic analysis and tribological properties. The slots were prepared on the Strue metallographic complex, Thixomet Pro software was used for metallographic analysis, hardness was determined on a Vilson hardness tester. The analysis of the structures of the experimental and basic samples carried out in 100 fields of view showed that the average length of graphite inclusions decreased by more than 3 times, and the area of graphite inclusions decreased by about 30%.

The sliding coefficient was determined on the COF-P01(M) device with the following characteristics: dry friction (without lubrication), tilt angle – 150; angular velocity – 100/s. Tribological tests were performed using a CSM Instruments tribometer. As a reference sample, the base alloy AChS-2 was used.

The test results showed that the sliding coefficient in the experimental alloy increased by more than 1.5 times, while the hardness increased slightly by about 12%. Some increase in hardness, apparently, can be explained by the formation of titanium carbides as a result of alloying. In this case, titanium carbides also act as a restraining factor for the growth of graphite inclusions, as well as other refractory phases of introduction.

The slight difference between the laboratory data and the results obtained at the production site is explained by the technological features of casting, the rate of heat removal of the mold during crystallization and the purity of the initial charge.

The conducted experimental studies of the properties and structure of the experimental alloy smelted under production conditions confirmed the beneficial effect of titanium microalloying in an amount of 0.25% on the performance properties of AChS-2 antifriction gray cast iron: the sliding coefficient increases by almost 1.5 times, the shape and size of craters improve after shock-cyclic exposure. Such an improvement in properties suggests an increase in structural strength and, consequently, an increase in the service life of a part made of an experimental alloy. Initiative studies were conducted on the possibility of using heat-resistant alloys for the manufacture of parts of mining equipment operating under conditions of wear and elevated temperatures. An experimental alloy was smelted, characterized by an increased niobium content. Steel 20X25N20X2 was used as a comparison sample. Tests have shown an increase in the heat-resistant properties of the experimental alloy due to the formation of (Nb, Mo)2B. The results obtained allow us to recommend this alloy for the manufacture of parts operating at elevated temperatures and under wear conditions.

 a)  b)
Figure 1 – Structures of the studied alloys: a – basic: b – experienced

Figure 2 – Example of analysis of graphite inclusions using Thixomet Pro software



 а)  b)
Figure 3 – Craters of the surface after impact-cyclic impact:

a – basic sample; b – prototype

Research group

1 Shcherbakova Yelena Petrovna – project manager, PhD, acting associate professor of the NMD

ORCID 0000-0001-6678-6673

Researcher ID N-5639-2017

Scopus Author ID 55543103900

2 Dostaeva Ardak Mukhamedievna – PhD, acting associate professor of the NMD

ORCID 0000-0002-1982-2368

Researcher ID AAB-9478-2020

Scopus Author ID 57160297400

3 Issagulova Diana Aristotelevna – PhD, acting associate professor of the NMD

Scopus Author ID 55778253200

4 Adamova Gulden Khasenovna – doctoral student of the group “METD-21” of the NMD

5 Kovaleva Tatiana Viktorovna – M. Sc. Eng., Senior Researcher at KazMRDI, lecturer of the NMD

Scopus Author ID 57211297553

6 Aubakirov Dastan Rakhmetollayevich – M. Sc. Eng., Senior lecturer of the NMD

ORCID 0000-0003-4193-5956

Researcher ID X-1767-2019

Scopus Author ID 57194209750

7 Alina Araylym Altynbekovna – doctoral student of the group METD-20 of NMD ORCID 0000-0003-3577-4914

Scopus Author ID 57218196165

List of publications for 2023

  1. Ye.P. Chsherbakova, A.M. Dostaeva, V.Yu. Kulikov, Sv.S. Kvon, A.A. Alina Stydying properties and structure of antfriction cast iron additionally alloyed with titanium // Metalurgija, Croatia: Croatian Metallurgical Society. – 2023. – No. 3-4 (62). – P. 455 – 457, ISSN 0543-5846 (IF Scopus 0,388, Scopus percentile – 37th).
  2. Shcherbakova E.P., Kulikov V.Yu., Dostaeva A.M., Kovaleva T.V., Adamova G.H. Casting of antifriction cast irons into sand-clay molds from Kazakhstani raw materials // Foundry production, Moscow: Publishing House “Foundry production”. – 2023. – No. 6. – pp. 28-29

Information for potential users

The obtained results can be realized in other technologies of foundry production, used in the development of new alloys, in the development of new modes of casting and melting. The obtained theoretical and practical results will be used in industry, engineering calculations and for educational purposes.


AP09058352 “Development and introduction of the new heat-resistant alloy and manufacturing technology of the parts for metallurgical production on its basis” project manager Arinova S.K.


The relevance of this topic is due to the need to search for new compositions of heat-resistant steels that are optimal from the standpoint of price / quality. In other words, it is necessary to increase the heat resistance of existing and currently used heat-resistant steels with a minimal increase in their cost. The problem is aggravated by the fact that the production of heat-resistant steels in Kazakhstan is practically not established. Therefore, the developed alloy should not have too complex composition, so that the technology of its production and castings from it can be adapted and implemented at existing enterprises of the Republic of Kazakhstan, taking into account the level of development of fixed assets.

The aim of the project

Creation of the new improved heat-resistant alloys, as well as parts manufacturing technologies on their basis, taking into account the existing fixed assets on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Karaganda region).

Expected and achieved results

The developed technology was adjusted. The developed technology consists in smelting an experimental alloy based on the Fe-Cr-Ni system, additionally alloyed with niobium, and then obtaining castings from it by casting according to gasified models. Niobium alloying of steel containing Cr, Ni and Ti leads to the formation of niobium carbides, which provides an increase in strength and the limit of long-term strength compared to the original steel without additional alloying. The presence of titanium in steel avoids the formation of an undesirable G –phase.

Production tests were carried out at the production site of “Parkhomenko KMZ” LLP according to the preliminary technological map. To develop a preliminary technological map, the calculation of the material balance of melting in an industrial furnace, the calculation of charge materials for filling, experiments on heat treatment modes were carried out. As a result of the calculations and research, a preliminary technological map was developed.

Figure 1– Elemental composition of the experimental alloy (sample 3)



 a)  b)

Figure 2– determination of hardness of samples: a- example of determination of hardness; b- obtained results on hardness

Research Group

  1. Arinova Saniya Kaskataevna- project manager, PhD, lecturer of the NMD

Scopus Author ID 57192206332

  1. Aubakirov Dastan Rakhmetollaevich senior lecturer of the NMD

ORCID 0000-0003-4193-5956

Researcher ID X-1767-2019

Scopus ID 57194209750

  1. Sultangaziyev Ruslan Bauyrzhanovich – PhD, acting associate professor of the NMD

ORCID 0000-0002-3928-486X

Scopus Author ID 57160291200

  1. Issagulova Diana Aristotelevna – PhD, acting associate professor of the NMD

Scopus Author ID 55778253200

  1. Kovaleva Tatiana Viktorovna – M. Sc. Eng., senior researcher of the KazMRDI Institute, lecturer of the NMD.

Scopus Author ID 57211297553

  1. Alina Araylym Altynbekovna – doctoral student of the group METD-20 of the NMD

ORCID 0000-0003-3577-4914

Scopus Author ID 57218196165

  1. Adamova Gulden Khassenovna – doctoral student of the group METD -21 of the NMD

List of publications for 2023

  1. 1. Kvon SV.S, Arinova S.K., Aubakirov D.R., Kovaleva Т.V. Influence of Niobium on Heat-Resistant Properties of Steel Cr18Ni10Ti // Metallurgist, 2023. (Scopus percentile – 46th).
  2. Arinova S.K., Kvon SV.S, Aubakirov D.R., Kovaleva Т.V., Issagulova D.A. «Investigation of heat-resistant properties and microstructure of experimental steel based on the Cr-Ni-Тi-Nb system obtained under industrial conditions // Metallurgija, 62 (2023) 3-4, pp. 471-473.( Croatia, Scopus percentile – 35th)
  3. Kulikov V.Yu., Kvon S.S., Arinova S.K., Aubakirov D.R. Casting of heat-resistant steel // Foundry production, 9, 2022.
  4. Arinova S.K., Kvon S.S., Kulikov V.Yu., Isagulova D.A., Aubakirov D.R., Alina A.A. Influence of model material and paint composition at LGM on casting quality // Foundry production, 5, 2023.
  5. Patent application 2022/ 0303.1 “Composition of heat-resistant steel” dated 05/18/2022 Authors: Arinova S.K., Kvon S.S., Kulikov V.Yu., Aubakirov D.R., Kovaleva T.V., etc.

Information for potential users

The obtained scientific results can be applied in the development of new production and areas of metallurgical and foundry production.