Mineral deposits

Mineral deposits – are mineral formations in the Earth’s crust chemical composition and physical properties that allow to use them effectively in the sphere of material production.

Coal was the first fuel fossils used by man. It allowed to made industrial revolution, which in turn contributed to development of the coal industry, providing it with more modern technology. In 1960 coal has given about half of the world production of energy, by 1970 its share had fallen to one-third.

Stone coal – sedimentary rock, which represent product of deep decomposition of plant residue (arborescent ferns, horsetail and club-mosses, as well as the first gymnospermous plants). The majority of coal deposits was formed in Paleozoic, mainly in the Carboniferous period, approximately 300-350 million years ago.

Stone coal presents the mixture of high-molecular polycyclic aromatic compounds with a high mass fraction of carbon on chemical composition, as well as water and volatile substances with small quantity of mineral admixtures, which form ash in burning the coal. Fossil coals are differ from each other  ratio constituent  of their components, which determines their calorific value. A number of organic connections, included in composition of coal have carcinogenic properties.

Bevey coal – solid mineral coal, which is formed of peat, contains 65-70 % of the carbon has brown colour and is the youngest of coal. It is used as a local fuel, and also as a chemical feedstock.

Types of coal

Depending on metamorphism level are distinguished: bevey coal, anthracite coals and graphites. It is interesting there’s another classification in the foreign countries: respectively, lignite, subbituminous coal, bituminous coals, anthracites and graphites.

1.Bevey coals. They contain much water (43%) and therefore have a low heat of burning. In addition, contain a large quantity of volatile substances (up to 50 %). They are formed from dead organic remains under pressure load and under the influence of elevated temperature on a depth of about 1 kilometer.


2. Stone coals. Contain up to 12 % moisture (3-4 % of domestic), therefore they have a high heat of burning. They contain up to 32 % of volatile substances, on the account of which burn well. They are formed from bevey coal at a depth of about 3 kilometers.
3. Anthracites. Almost all (96 %) are composed of carbon. They have the greatest heat of burning, but don’t burn easily. They are formed from stone coal in increasing of pressure and temperature at a depth of about 6 kilometers. They are used mainly in chemical industry.

4. Graphites.

October 1, 1929 in accordance with the order of Supreme Economic Council of the USSR was created Kazakh regional geological exploration administration at SEC USSR. This date is the beginning of independent state geological work in Kazakhstan. This year this service will celebrate its 80th anniversary. At these days of the 65th anniversary ous museum was awarded with the medal.